Biosynthesis of Enfumafungin-type Antibiotic Reveals an Unusual Enzymatic Fusion Pattern and Unprecedented C-C Bond Cleavage


J Am Chem Soc. 2024 Apr 23. doi: 10.1021/jacs.4c02415. Online ahead of print.


Enfumafungin-type antibiotics, represented by enfumafungin and fuscoatroside, belong to a distinct group of triterpenoids derived from fungi. These compounds exhibit significant antifungal properties with ibrexafungerp, a semisynthetic derivative of enfumafungin, recently gaining FDA’s approval as the first oral antifungal drug for treating invasive vulvar candidiasis. Enfumafungin-type antibiotics possess a cleaved E-ring with an oxidized carboxyl group and a reduced methyl group at the break site, suggesting unprecedented C-C bond cleavage chemistry involved in their biosynthesis. Here, we show that a 4-gene (fsoA, fsoD, fsoE, fsoF) biosynthetic gene cluster is sufficient to yield fuscoatroside by heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae. Notably, FsoA is an unheard-of terpene cyclase-glycosyltransferase fusion enzyme, affording a triterpene glycoside product that relies on enzymatic fusion. FsoE is a P450 enzyme that catalyzes successive oxidation reactions at C19 to facilitate a C-C bond cleavage, producing an oxidized carboxyl group and a reduced methyl group that have never been observed in known P450 enzymes. Our study thus sets the important foundation for the manufacture of enfumafungin-type antibiotics using biosynthetic approaches.

PMID:38654452 | DOI:10.1021/jacs.4c02415