Characteristics of Trypsin genes and their roles in insecticide resistance based on omics and functional analyses in the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis

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Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2024 May;201:105883. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2024.105883. Epub 2024 Mar 19.

ABSTRACT

Trypsin is one of the most diverse and widely studied protease hydrolases. However, the diversity and characteristics of the Trypsin superfamily of genes have not been well understood, and their role in insecticide resistance is yet to be investigated. In this study, a total of 342 Trypsin genes were identified and classified into seven families based on homology, characteristic domains and phylogenetics in Anopheles sinensis, and the LY-Domain and CLECT-Domain families are specific to the species. Four Trypsin genes, (Astry2b, Astry43a, Astry90, Astry113c) were identified to be associated with pyrethroid resistance based on transcriptome analyses of three field resistant populations and qRT-PCR validation, and the knock-down of these genes significantly decrease the pyrethroid resistance of Anopheles sinensis based on RNAi. The activity of Astry43a can be reduced by five selected insecticides (indoxacarb, DDT, temephos, imidacloprid and deltamethrin); and however, the Astry43a could not directly metabolize these five insecticides, like the trypsin NYD-Tr did in earlier reports. This study provides the overall information frame of Trypsin genes, and proposes the role of Trypsin genes to insecticide resistance. Further researches are necessary to investigate the metabolism function of these trypsins to insecticides.

PMID:38685249 | DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2024.105883