Chemical profiling of bioactive compounds in the methanolic extract of wild leaf and callus of Vitex negundo using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry


World J Exp Med. 2024 Mar 20;14(1):88064. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v14.i1.88064. eCollection 2024 Mar 20.


BACKGROUND: The investigation of plant-based therapeutic agents in medicinal plants has revealed their presence in the extracts and provides the vision to formulate novel techniques for drug therapy. Vitex negundo (V. negundo), a perennial herb belonging to the Varbanaceae family, is extensively used in conventional medication.

AIM: To determine the existence of therapeutic components in leaf and callus extracts from wild V. negundo plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

METHODS: In this study, we conducted GC-MS on wild plant leaf extracts and correlated the presence of constituents with those in callus extracts. Various growth regulators such as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), and di-phenylurea (DPU) were added to plant leaves and in-vitro callus and grown on MS medium.

RESULTS: The results clearly indicated that the addition of BAP (2.0 mg/L), 2,4-D (0.2 mg/mL), DPU (2.0 mg/L) and 2,4-D (0.2 mg/mL) in MS medium resulted in rapid callus development. The plant profile of Vitex extracts by GC-MS analysis showed that 24, 10, and 14 bioactive constituents were detected in the methanolic extract of leaf, green callus and the methanolic extract of white loose callus, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Octadecadienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and methyl ester were the major constituents in the leaf and callus methanolic extract. Octadecadienoic acid was the most common constituent in all samples. The maximum concentration of octadecadienoic acid in leaves, green callus and white loose callus was 21.93%, 47.79% and 40.38%, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the concentration of octadecadienoic acid doubles in-vitro compared to in-vivo. In addition to octadecadienoic acid; butyric acid, benzene, 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl), dospan, tridecanedialdehyde, methylcyclohexenylbutanol, chlorpyrifos, n-secondary terpene diester, anflunine and other important active compounds were also detected. All these components were only available in callus formed in-vitro. This study showed that the callus contained additional botanical characteristics compared with wild plants. Due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds, the medical use of Vitex for various diseases has been accepted and the plant is considered an important source of therapeutics for research and development.

PMID:38590309 | PMC:PMC10999060 | DOI:10.5493/wjem.v14.i1.88064