Co-transcriptional R-loops-mediated epigenetic regulation drives growth retardation and docetaxel chemosensitivity enhancement in advanced prostate cancer

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Mol Cancer. 2024 Apr 24;23(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s12943-024-01994-0.

ABSTRACT

R-loops are prevalent three-stranded nucleic acid structures, comprising a DNA-RNA hybrid and a displaced single-stranded DNA, that frequently form during transcription and may be attributed to genomic stability and gene expression regulation. It was recently discovered that RNA modification contributes to maintain the stability of R-loops such as N6-methyladenosine (m6A). Yet, m6A-modified R-loops in regulating gene transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding proteins (IGF2BPs) recognize R-loops in an m6A-dependent way. Consequently, IGF2BPs overexpression leads to increased overall R-loop levels, cell migration inhibition, and cell growth retardation in prostate cancer (PCa) via precluding the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1) to semaphorin 3 F (SEMA3F) promoters. Moreover, the K homology (KH) domains of IGF2BPs are required for their recognition of m6A-containing R-loops and are required for tumor suppressor functions. Overexpression of SEMA3F markedly enhanced docetaxel chemosensitivity in prostate cancer via regulating Hippo pathway. Our findings point to a distinct R-loop resolution pathway mediated by IGF2BPs, emphasizing the functional importance of IGF2BPs as epigenetic R-loop readers in transcriptional genetic regulation and cancer biology.The manuscript summarizes the new role of N6-methyladenosine in epigenetic regulation, we introduce the distinct R-loop resolution mediated by IGF2BP proteins in an m6A-dependent way, which probably lead to the growth retardation and docetaxel chemotherapy resistance in prostate cancer. Moreover, our findings first emphasized the functional importance of IGF2BPs as epigenetic R-loop readers in transcriptional genetic regulation and cancer biology. In addition, our research provides a novel RBM15/IGF2BPs/DNMT1 trans-omics regulation m6A axis, indicating the new crosstalk between RNA m6A methylation and DNA methylation in prostate cancer.

PMID:38658974 | DOI:10.1186/s12943-024-01994-0