Effectiveness and chemical insights: Exploring interactions between nanomicelles and monoterpenoids for head lice treatment

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Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2024 May;201:105886. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2024.105886. Epub 2024 Mar 24.

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the pediculicidal activity of nanoformulations containing different binary essential oil component mixtures (eugenol:linalool, 1,8 -cineole:linalool, and eugenol:thymol) using immersion bioassays. These have allowed us to evaluate the knockdown time affecting 50% of the individuals (KT50). In addition, the type of interaction between the components in each mixture was established in terms of the combination index (IC). The KT50 values were 6.07; 8.83; 7.17 and 27.23 h for linalool, 1,8 -cineole, eugenol, and thymol, respectively. For the eugenol:linalool mixtures, the efficacy was lower or equal to that obtained for the nanoformulations of the pure compounds, with values of KT50 about 13.33, 8.16 and 6.71 h for mixtures with ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. These mixtures present IC > 1, evidencing antagonistic interaction, which is enhanced with eugenol content. In the case of the binary mixtures of 1,8 -cineole: linalool, KT50 values were similar to those obtained for eugenol:linalool mixtures with similar ratios. In this case, IC assumes values close to unity, suggesting additive interactions independently of the mixture composition. On the other side, mixtures of eugenol:thymol with 1:1 and 1:3 ratios showed values of 9.40 and 32.93 h, while the mixture with a 3:1 ratio showed the greatest effectiveness (KT50 of 4.42 h). Eugenol:thymol mixtures show synergistic interaction (IC < 1) for combinations 3:1 and 1:1, while no interaction was observed for 1:3 combination. This indicates that eugenol enhances thymol activity. These results must be considered an important step forward to the development of effective pediculicidal nanoformulations based on botanical compounds.

PMID:38685252 | DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2024.105886