Efficacy of human prothrombin complex concentrate in the treatment of warfarin overdose in patients receiving warfarin for mechanical heart valve replacement

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Medicine (Baltimore). 2024 May 10;103(19):e38022. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000038022.

ABSTRACT

Warfarin, a widely utilized anticoagulant, is paramount for preventing thromboembolic events in patients with mechanical heart valve replacements. However, its narrow therapeutic index can lead to over-anticoagulation and overdose, resulting in serious health risks. This study examines the efficacy of human prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in managing warfarin overdose, in comparison with traditional treatments. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 162 adults who presented with warfarin overdose (INR > 5.0) at a tertiary care hospital between 2016 and 2020. Participants were divided into 2 groups-those treated with PCC (n = 57) and those treated with conventional methods (n = 105), including vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. The primary outcome was the rate of reaching the target (International Normalized Ratio) INR within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included transfusion requirements, thromboembolic events, adverse reactions, 30-day mortality, and length of hospital stay. PCC demonstrated significant efficacy, with 89.5% of patients achieving the target INR within 24 hours, compared to 64.8% in the control group (P < .05). The PCC group also had reduced transfusion requirements and a shorter average hospital stay. There was no significant difference in thromboembolic events or adverse reactions between the 2 groups, and the reduced 30-day mortality in the PCC group was not statistically significant. Human prothrombin complex concentrate is associated with rapid reaching the target INR, decreased transfusion needs, and shortened hospitalization, making it a promising option for warfarin overdose management. While the results are encouraging, larger, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are necessary to further validate these findings and optimize PCC administration protocols.

PMID:38728459 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000038022