Genomic analysis based on chromosome-level genome assembly reveals Myrtaceae evolution and terpene biosynthesis of rose myrtle

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BMC Genomics. 2024 Jun 10;25(1):578. doi: 10.1186/s12864-024-10509-6.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk), is an evergreen shrub species belonging to the family Myrtaceae, which is enriched with bioactive volatiles (α-pinene and β-caryophyllene) with medicinal and industrial applications. However, the mechanism underlying the volatile accumulation in the rose myrtle is still unclear.

RESULTS: Here, we present a chromosome-level genomic assembly of rose myrtle (genome size = 466 Mb, scaffold N50 = 43.7 Mb) with 35,554 protein-coding genes predicted. Through comparative genomic analysis, we found that gene expansion and duplication had a potential contribution to the accumulation of volatile substances. We proposed that the action of positive selection was significantly involved in volatile accumulation. We identified 43 TPS genes in R. tomentosa. Further transcriptomic and TPS gene family analyses demonstrated that the distinct gene subgroups of TPS may contribute greatly to the biosynthesis and accumulation of different volatiles in the Myrtle family of shrubs and trees. The results suggested that the diversity of TPS-a subgroups led to the accumulation of special sesquiterpenes in different plants of the Myrtaceae family.

CONCLUSIONS: The high quality chromosome-level rose myrtle genome and the comparative analysis of TPS gene family open new avenues for obtaining a higher commercial value of essential oils in medical plants.

PMID:38858635 | DOI:10.1186/s12864-024-10509-6