Identification and functional analysis of floral terpene synthase genes in Curcuma alismatifolia

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Planta. 2024 Jun 11;260(1):26. doi: 10.1007/s00425-024-04440-z.

ABSTRACT

CaTPS2 and CaTPS3 were significantly expressed in flowers of Curcuma alismatifolia ‘Shadow’ and demonstrated bifunctional enzyme activity, CaTPS2 generated linalool and nerolidol as products, and CaTPS3 catalyzed β-myrcene and β-farnesene formation. This study presents the discovery and functional characterization of floral terpene synthase (TPS) genes in Curcuma alismatifolia ‘Shadow’, a cultivar renowned for its unique fragrance. Addressing the gap in understanding the genetic basis of floral scent in this species, we identified eight TPS genes through comprehensive transcriptome sequencing. Among these, CaTPS2 and CaTPS3 were significantly expressed in floral tissues and demonstrated bifunctional enzyme activity corresponding to the major volatile compounds detected in ‘Shadow’. Functional analyses, including in vitro assays complemented with rigorous controls and alternative identification methods, elucidated the roles of these TPS genes in terpenoid biosynthesis. In vitro studies were conducted via heterologous expression in E. coli, followed by purification of the recombinant protein using affinity chromatography, enzyme assays were performed with GPP/FPP as the substrate, and volatile products were inserted into the GC-MS for analysis. Partially purified recombinant protein of CaTPS2 catalyzed GPP and FPP to produce linalool and nerolidol, respectively, while partially purified recombinant protein of CaTPS3 generated β-myrcene and β-farnesene with GPP and FPP as substrates, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR further validated the expression patterns of these genes, correlating with terpenoid accumulation in different plant tissues. Our findings illuminate the molecular mechanisms underpinning floral fragrance in C. alismatifolia and provide a foundation for future genetic enhancements of floral scent in ornamental plants. This study, therefore, contributes to the broader understanding of terpenoid biosynthesis in plant fragrances, paving the way for biotechnological applications in horticulture plant breeding.

PMID:38861179 | DOI:10.1007/s00425-024-04440-z