Iodine Nutrition, Thyroid-stimulating Hormone, and Related Factors of Postpartum Women from three Different Areas in China: A Cross-sectional Survey


Biomed Environ Sci. 2024 Mar 20;37(3):254-265. doi: 10.3967/bes2024.029.


OBJECTIVE: Studies on the relationship between iodine, vitamin A (VA), and vitamin D (VD) and thyroid function are limited. This study aimed to analyze iodine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) status and their possible relationships with VA, VD, and other factors in postpartum women.

METHODS: A total of 1,311 mothers (896 lactating and 415 non-lactating) from Hebei, Zhejiang, and Guangxi provinces were included in this study. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC), TSH, VA, and VD were measured.

RESULTS: The median UIC of total and lactating participants were 142.00 µg/L and 139.95 µg/L, respectively. The median TSH, VA, and VD levels in all the participants were 1.89 mIU/L, 0.44 μg/mL, and 24.04 ng/mL, respectively. No differences in the UIC were found between lactating and non-lactating mothers. UIC and TSH levels were significantly different among the three provinces. The rural UIC was higher than the urban UIC. Obese mothers had a higher UIC and a higher prevalence of excessive TSH. Higher UICs and TSHs levels were observed in both the VD deficiency and insufficiency groups than in the VD-sufficient group. After adjustment, no linear correlation was observed between UIC and VA/VD. No interaction was found between vitamins A/D and UIC on TSH levels.

CONCLUSION: The mothers in the present study had no iodine deficiency. Region, area type, BMI, and VD may be related to the iodine status or TSH levels.

PMID:38582990 | DOI:10.3967/bes2024.029