Microbial chassis as the platform for production of dihydroxy xanthophyll-based carotenoids: an overview of recent advances in biomanufacturing

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World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 May 9;40(6):197. doi: 10.1007/s11274-024-03996-y.

ABSTRACT

Physiological and environmental cues prompt microbes to synthesize diverse carotenoids, including dihydroxy xanthophylls, facilitating their adaptation and survival. Lutein and its isomeric counterpart, zeaxanthin, are notable dihydroxy xanthophylls with bioactive properties such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective effects, particularly beneficial for human ocular health. However, global natural resources for co-producing lutein and zeaxanthin are scarce, with zeaxanthin lacking commercial sources, unlike lutein sourced from marigold plants and microalgae. Traditionally, dihydroxy xanthophyll production primarily relies on petrochemical synthetic routes, with limited biological sourcing reported. Nonetheless, microbiological synthesis presents promising avenues as a commercial source, albeit challenged by low dihydroxy xanthophyll yield at high cell density. Strategies involving optimization of physical and chemical parameters are essential to achieve high-quality dihydroxy xanthophyll products. This overview briefly discusses dihydroxy xanthophyll biosynthesis and highlights recent advancements, discoveries, and industrial benefits of lutein and zeaxanthin production from microorganisms as alternative biofactories.

PMID:38722384 | DOI:10.1007/s11274-024-03996-y