Monoclonal-Antibody-Based Immunoassays for the Mycotoxins NX-2 and NX-3 in Wheat

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Toxins (Basel). 2024 May 18;16(5):231. doi: 10.3390/toxins16050231.

ABSTRACT

The fungal infestation of crops can cause major economic losses. Toxins produced by the causative fungi (mycotoxins) represent a potential safety hazard to people and livestock consuming them. One such mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin), a trichothecene associated with Fusarium Head Blight of wheat. DON is commonly found in cereal crops worldwide. A group of trichothecene mycotoxins closely related to DON, the NX toxins, have been reported to occur in the northeastern United States and southern Canada. While many commercial immunoassays are available to detect DON, there are no rapid screening assays for the NX toxins. We describe the development and isolation of three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific towards two NX toxins: NX-2 and NX-3. The mAbs did not recognize DON or several other closely related trichothecenes. One of the mAbs was selected for development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NX-2 and NX-3 in wheat. The dynamic ranges for the assay were 7.7 to 127 μg/kg for NX-2 and 59 μg/kg to 1540 μg/kg for NX-3 in wheat. Recoveries from spiked wheat averaged 84.4% for NX-2 and 99.3% for NX-3, with RSDs of 10.4% and 11.3%, respectively (n = 24). The results suggest that this assay can be used to screen for NX toxins in wheat at levels relevant to human food and animal feed safety.

PMID:38787083 | DOI:10.3390/toxins16050231