Oleocanthal Protects C2C12 Myotubes against the Pro-Catabolic and Anti-Myogenic Action of Stimuli Able to Induce Muscle Wasting In Vivo

By

Nutrients. 2024 Apr 26;16(9):1302. doi: 10.3390/nu16091302.

ABSTRACT

Oleocanthal (OC) is a monophenol of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) endowed with antibiotic, cardioprotective and anticancer effects, among others, mainly in view of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OC has been largely investigated in terms of its anticancer activity, in Alzheimer disease and in collagen-induced arthritis; however, the possibility that it can also affect muscle biology has been totally overlooked so far. This study is the first to describe that OC modulates alterations induced in C2C12 myotubes by stimuli known to induce muscle wasting in vivo, namely TNF-α, or in the medium conditioned by the C26 cachexia-inducing tumor (CM-C26). C2C12 myotubes were exposed to CM-C26 or TNF-α in the presence or absence of OC for 24 and 48 h and analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. In combination with TNF-α or CM-C26, OC was revealed to be able to restore both the myotube’s original size and morphology and normal levels of both atrogin-1 and MuRF1. OC seems unable to impinge on the autophagic-lysosomal proteolytic system or protein synthesis. Modulations towards normal levels of the expression of molecules involved in myogenesis, such as Pax7, myogenin and MyHC, were also observed in the myotube cultures exposed to OC and TNF-α or CM-C26. In conclusion, the data presented here show that OC exerts a protective action in C2C12 myotubes exposed to TNF-α or CM-C26, with mechanisms likely involving the downregulation of ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis and the partial relief of myogenic differentiation impairment.

PMID:38732549 | DOI:10.3390/nu16091302