Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and analgesic potential of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia prostrata ait. and Crotalaria burhia Buch-Ham


Heliyon. 2024 Mar 15;10(6):e27279. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e27279. eCollection 2024 Mar 30.


Euphorbia prostrata (E. prostrata) and Crotalaria burhia (C. burhia) are widely found in flora of the Cholistan Desert of Bahawalpur, Pakistan and are traditionally used to treat pain and chronic disease. The current study aimed to evaluate their phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, in-vivo phagocytic activity, and analgesic activity. Both the plant extracts were investigated for phytochemical screening, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, in-vitro antioxidant by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, in-vivo immunomodulatory activity by macrophages phagocytosis using carbon clearance rate assay and analgesic activity by acetic acid produced writhing method. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, phenols, quinines, proteins, terpenes, glycosides, and alkaloids. FTIR analysis revealed the existence of different functional groups in both extracts. The DPPH method showed that E. prostrata exhibited a high antioxidant potential with an IC50 of 62.5 μg/ml whereas C. burhia showed a lower antioxidant potential. At the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (b. wt), both the extracts showed a significant increase in the phagocytic index by 5.2 ± 0.2, and, 4.8 ± 0.1 (p < 0.001) respectively which was close to the 100 mg/kg b. wt of the standard drug (Levamisole) 5.4 ± 0.2. Both the extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg b. wt also significantly reduced the writhing (abdominal contractions) count by 13.7 ± 0.3 and, 25.3 ± 1.5 (p < 0.001), showing 71.8% and 47.6% of reduced analgesic activity compared to the standard drug dicloran (diclofenac sodium), respectively. In conclusion, extracts of both plants indicate their role in the management of various disorders to relieve pain and modulate the immune system.

PMID:38545175 | PMC:PMC10965469 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e27279