Potential of MALDI-TOF MS biotyping to detect deltamethrin resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti

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PLoS One. 2024 May 10;19(5):e0303027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0303027. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is spreading worldwide and represents a growing threat to vector control. Insecticide resistance is caused by different mechanisms including higher metabolic detoxication, target-site modification, reduced penetration and behavioral changes that are not easily detectable with simple diagnostic methods. Indeed, most molecular resistance diagnostic tools are costly and labor intensive and then difficult to use for routine monitoring of insecticide resistance. The present study aims to determine whether mosquito susceptibility status against the pyrethroid insecticides (mostly used for mosquito control) could be established by the protein signatures of legs and/or thoraxes submitted to MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry (MS). The quality of MS spectra for both body parts was controlled to avoid any bias due to unconformity protein profiling. The comparison of MS profiles from three inbreeds Ae. aegypti lines from French Guiana (IRF, IR03, IR13), with distinct deltamethrin resistance genotype / phenotype and the susceptible reference laboratory line BORA (French Polynesia), showed different protein signatures. On both body parts, the analysis of whole protein profiles revealed a singularity of BORA line compared to the three inbreeding lines from French Guiana origin, suggesting that the first criteria of differentiation is the geographical origin and/or the breeding history rather than the insecticide susceptibility profile. However, a deeper analysis of the protein profiles allowed to identify 10 and 11 discriminating peaks from leg and thorax spectra, respectively. Among them, a specific peak around 4870 Da was detected in legs and thoraxes of pyrethroid resistant lines compared to the susceptible counterparts hence suggesting that MS profiling may be promising to rapidly distinguish resistant and susceptible phenotypes. Further work is needed to confirm the nature of this peak as a deltamethrin resistant marker and to validate the routine use of MS profiling to track insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti field populations.

PMID:38728353 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0303027