Saikosaponin a alleviates pentylenetetrazol-induced acute epileptic seizures in mouse models of depression by suppressing microglia activation-mediated inflammation

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Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2024 Mar 20;44(3):515-522. doi: 10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2024.03.13.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the inhibitory effect of saikosonin a (SSa) on pentylenetetrazol-induced acute epilepsy seizures in a mouse model of depression and explore the mechanism mediating this effect.

METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mouse models of depression was established by oral administration of corticosterone via drinking water for 3 weeks, and acute epileptic seizures were induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of pentylenetetrazole. The effect of intraperitoneal injection of SSa prior to the treatment on depressive symptoms and epileptic seizures were assessed using behavioral tests, epileptic seizure grading and hippocampal morphology observation. ELISA was used to detect blood corticosterone levels of the mice, and RTqPCR was performed to detect the pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Microglia activation in the mice was observed using immunofluorescence staining.

RESULTS: The mouse model of corticosterone-induced depression showed body weight loss and obvious depressive behaviors with significantly increased serum corticosterone level (all P < 0.05). Compared with those with pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy alone, the epileptic mice with comorbid depression showed significantly shorter latency of epileptic seizures, increased number, grade and duration of of seizures, reduced Nissl bodies in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons, increased number of Iba1-positive cells, and significantly enhanced hippocampal expressions of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Pretreatment of the epileptic mice with SSa significantly prolonged the latency of epileptic seizures, reduced the number, duration, and severity of seizures, increased the number of Nissl bodies, decreased the number of Iba1-positive cells, and reduced the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in the hippocampus (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Depressive state aggravates epileptic seizures, increases microglia activation, and elevates inflammation levels. SSA treatment can alleviate acute epileptic seizures in mouse models of depression possibly by suppressing microglia activation-mediated inflammation.

PMID:38597443 | DOI:10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2024.03.13