The genus Polygonum: An updated comprehensive review of its ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and phytopharmaceutical formulation

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Heliyon. 2024 Apr 6;10(8):e28947. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28947. eCollection 2024 Apr 30.

ABSTRACT

Polygonum is a plant genus that includes annual and perennial species and is found at various temperatures, from northern temperate regions to tropical and subtropical areas. The genus Polygonum has been used for centuries for various disorders, including hypertension, intestinal and stomach pain, dysuria, jaundice, toothaches, skin allergies, hemorrhoids, cardiac disorders, kidney stones, hemostasis, hyperglycemia, and others. Various databases, including Google Scholar, Scifinder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate, and Web of Science, were utilized to collect pertinent scientific literature data. According to bibliographic studies, the Polygonum genus possesses various compounds from different families, including phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, quinic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, and many other compounds), flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, myricetin, etc.), tannins, stilbenes (polydatin and resveratrol), terpenes (α-pinene, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, bisabolene, β-farnesene, etc.), fatty acids (decanoic acid, lauric acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, dodecanoic acid), polysaccharides, and others. Various chemical and biological activities (in vitro and in vivo), such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, neuropharmacological, gastroprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, and others, have been described in several biological studies involving this species. An updated summary of Polygonum species and their ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, toxicological, pharmacological, and phytopharmaceutical formulations is necessary. Considering the numerous potentialities of the Polygonum species and their wide-ranging use, it is extremely essential to provide knowledge by compiling the accessible literature to identify the topics of intense investigation and the main gaps to better design future studies. The objective of this review is to give readers a better understanding, greater comprehension, and in-depth knowledge of the genus Polygonum’s traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicological features, and galenic formulation. Several species of this genus have been detailed in this review, including those that were frequently used in traditional medicine (P. minus, P. aviculare, P. hydropiper, P. cuspidatum, and P. multiflorum) and many of the genus’ therapeutic species, like P. equisetiforme, which do not get enough attention.

PMID:38638945 | PMC:PMC11024578 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28947