Two Distinct Enzymes Have Both Phytoene Desaturase and 3,4-Desaturase Activities Involved in Carotenoid Biosynthesis by the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula japonica


Microbes Environ. 2024;39(5). doi: 10.1264/jsme2.ME24004.


The extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica accumulates the C50 carotenoid, bacterioruberin (BR). To reveal the BR biosynthetic pathway, unidentified phytoene desaturase candidates were functionally characterized in the present study. Two genes encoding the potential phytoene desaturases, c0507 and d1086, were found from the Ha. japonica genome sequence by a homology search using the Basic Local Align Search Tool. Disruption mutants of c0507 and d1086 and their complemented strains transformed with expression plasmids for c0507 and d1086 were subsequently constructed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ana-lyses of carotenoids produced by these strains revealed that C0507 and D1086 were both bifunctional enzymes with the same activities as both phytoene desaturase (CrtI) and 3,4-desaturase (CrtD). C0507 and D1086 complemented each other during BR biosynthesis in Ha. japonica. This is the first study to identify two distinct enzymes with both CrtI and CrtD activities in an extremely halophilic archaeon.

PMID:38811235 | DOI:10.1264/jsme2.ME24004